Géarmæl/Calendar

An Anglo-Saxon Géarmæl (Year-reckoning)
by Þórbeorht Línléah

The ancient English people […] reckoned their months by the course of the moon, just as they were named from the moon in Hebrew and Greek. Accordingly, they called the moon móna, the month was called mónaþ. The first month, which the Romans name January, is with them Giuli. Then follows February, Solmónaþ; March Hrédmónaþ; April, Éosturmónaþ; May, Þrimilchi; June, Líþa; August, Wéodmónaþ; September, Hálegmónaþ; October, Winterfylleþ; November, Blótmónaþ; December, Giuli, the same as for January.
– Bede De Temporum Ratione

Many winters ago, the passing and reckoning of time was held to be holy and inseparably connected to the cycle of life itself. Unlike the Christian Gregorian calendar that we use today, the calendar of our heathen forbearers followed an agricultural cycle; its months and its seasons being measured by the moons.

In the natural world of our ancestors, time began in darkness, much like life does in the womb.  The new day began at sunset, a time that all could behold and easily mark.  The new month began upon the new moon.  The year began upon the winter’s solstice. 

Like a wheel, the year turned upon the solstices, waxing to warmth and waning to cold.  Summer began at the time of Easter, when life began to blossom and flourish once more.  Winter began with the falling of the leaves, the cooling of the air, and the fading of life. The first day that plowing could begin was celebrated by all.  The first milking of the ewe’s held great importance as did the summer month in which cows flowed with such fecundity that they could be milked thrice a day.  As summer waned and winter drew nigh, the fruits of the harvest were brought home with thanksgiving and feasting.  And, at Midwinter, upon the longest night and shortest day of the year, the folk faithfully assembled for feast and revelry as time renewed itself once again.

If we are ever to see the world through ancient eyes, to know and comprehend truth and tradition held from time immemorial, to know, as best as we may be able, such holy gods as our heathen forefathers once knew, and if we are to reconnect with the land once more, and find fellowship with the good wights who inhabit it, we must first find the time, the right time, one that lends itself to, and not against, such noble endeavors.    Thus, we present to you the Géarmæl, the year and holy time as we once reckoned it.  May it be a help to you and yours.

Getælcircules Géarmæl (Years Reckonings for the present Metonic Cycle)

Géarmæl circa 2010
Géarmæl circa 2011
Géarmæl circa 2012
Géarmæl circa 2013
Géarmæl circa 2014
Géarmæl circa 2015
Géarmæl circa 2016
Géarmæl circa 2017
Géarmæl circa 2018
Géarmæl circa 2019
Géarmæl circa 2020
Géarmæl circa 2021
Géarmæl circa 2022
Géarmæl circa 2023
Géarmæl circa 2024
Géarmæl circa 2025
Géarmæl circa 2026
Géarmæl circa 2027
Géarmæl circa 2028

Notes on the Géarmæl:

  • The Géarmæl as followed by our gyld owes its origins to the early efforts made by those within the Wínland Ríce to reconstruct the Anglo-Saxon calendar.  Likewise, it includes insights and discoveries made by Anglo-Saxon and other  Þéodisc Heathens since the Wínland Ríce’s disbanding.  Lastly, it contains some original insights put forward by our own Þórbeorht, much of which has already found its way into the Géarmæl as reckoned by other fellowships (by way previous editions).  Þórbeorht, would like to credit the insights and efforts of those who have worked upon reconstructing the Anglo-Saxon Géarmæl, namely Gárman Lord, Æscbéam McQueen, Brandon Geringas, Ælfric and Ursula, Gerd Axenthowes, Ritserd Culver, Cynemund Smith, and Swain Wódening.  While some were drawn upon more than others, each, in their own way, contributed to the understanding of the Anglo-Saxon year.  For that we are all thankful.
  • This reconstruction of the Géarmæl is based upon the work of a Northumbrian monk and historian, Bede, who in 725 CE, preserved an account (a summary really) of the Anglo-Saxon Heathen year in his work De Temporum Ratione (De Mensibus Anglorum), “Reckoning of Time (Months of the English).”
  • Also used in this reconstruction is an oft overlooked Anglo-Saxon poem known as the Menologium.  Though a church calendar used to reckon the celebration of saints’ days, its use of use of the Anglo-Saxon month names along with its notes on the seasons made it an invaluable resource. 
  • The new naþ/month begins with the new na/moon. That said, our fore-elders understood the new moon as being the first visible crescent of the moon rather than the “dark moon,” which is what it came to be called with the advent of modern astronomy. As such, this Géarmæl begins each month according to the “old new moon”, rather than by the more recent astronomical new moon (the dark moon).  Weather permitting, this is usually two days after the dark moon. 
  • For both solar and lunar events, the Géarmæl makes use of astrological charts and reckonings that used the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as their basis.  UTC matches the time used in both Iceland and England, barring the months that England is caught up in all of that Daylight Savings Time nonsense.  As such, the dates used on this  Géarmæl may very slightly, depending on whether the time difference would push a solstice or new moon onto another date. That said, it seems fitting to reckon the Anglo-Saxon year by the moon’s passing over Anglo-Saxon soil.
  • The Géarmæl follows a nineteen year cycle known in Old-English as the Getælcircul, the “Number Circle.”  More commonly known as the Metonic cycle, the Getælcircul marks the very near alignment of the solar and lunar cycles every nineteen years.   This is also the same cycle that medieval Norse runic calendars followed.
  • In every Getælcircul, there will be seven years in which there falls a third month of Líða which is known as Þrilíða.  Þrilíða falls in the 3rd, 6th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and 19th years of the Getælcircul.
  • The Winter Solstice and the Summer Solstice always fall within one of the Géol and Líða months.
  • Éastermónaþ always follows the Spring Equinox just as Winterfylleð always follows the Autumn Equinox.  T’was Swain Wódening’s discovery of this lost rule that sped him in reckoning the right year upon which to begin the present Getælcircul.  Our thanks to him for sharing this discovery with us.
  • It may be that there are spelling inconsistencies in the Anglo-Saxon names. There were several dialects of Anglo-Saxon and thus words were often spelled slightly differently, particularly in the case of vowels, from one region to another. This makes standardizing Anglo-Saxon a difficult endeavor. Though I have labored to remain consistent, I somehow doubt that I have.

Fyresta Géar (2010)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 17th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 16th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 17th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 16th
Þrimilci beginneth May 16th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 14th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 13th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 12th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 10th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 9th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 8th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 7th

Óðer Géar (2011)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 22nd

Æftera Géol beginneth January 6th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 5th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 6th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 5th
Þrimilci beginneth May 5th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 3rd
Æftera Líða beginneth July 3rd
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 1st
Háligmónaþ beginneth August 31st
Winterfylleð beginneth September 29th
Blótmónaþ beginneth October 28th
Ærre Géol beginneth November 27th

Þridda Géar (2012)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 20th
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth December 26th 2011
Solmónaþ beginneth January 25th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth February 23rd
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 24th
Þrimilci beginneth April 23rd
Ærre Líða beginneth May 20th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 21st
Þrilíða beginneth July 21st
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 19th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 18th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 17th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 15th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 15th

Féowerða Géar (2013)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 13th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 12th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 13th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 12th
Þrimilci beginneth May 12th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 10th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 10th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 8th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 7th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 7th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 5th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 5th

Fífta Géar (2014)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 3rd
Solmónaþ beginneth Febrary 1st
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 3rd
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 1st
Þrimilci beginneth May 1st
Ærre Líða beginneth May 30th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 29th
Weodmónaþ beginneth July 28th
Háligmónaþ beginneth August 27th
Winterfylleð beginneth September 26th
Blótmónaþ beginneth October 25th
Ærre Géol beginneth November 24th

Siexta Géar (2015)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 22nd

Æftera Géol beginneth December 23rd
Solmónaþ beginneth January 22nd
Hréþmónaþ beginneth February 20th
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 22nd
Þrimilci beginneth April 20th
Ærre Líða beginneth May 20th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 18th
Þrilíða beginneth July 18th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 16th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 15th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 15th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 13th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 13th

Seofoða Géar (2016)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 20th
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 12th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 10th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 11th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 9th
Þrimilci beginneth May 8th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 7th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 6th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 4th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 3rd
Winterfylleð beginneth October 3rd
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 1st
Ærre Géol beginneth December 1st

Eahtoða Géar (2017)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth December 31st
Solmónaþ beginneth January 30th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth February 28th
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 30th
Þrimilci beginneth April 28th
Ærre Líða beginneth May 27th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 26th
Þrilíða beginneth July 25th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 23rd
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 21st
Winterfylleð beginneth October 21st
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 20th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 20th

Nigoðo Géar (2018)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 19th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 17th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 19th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 18th
Þrimilci beginneth May 17th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 15th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 15th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 13th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 11th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 11th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 9th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 9th

Téoða Géar (2019)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 22nd

Æftera Géol beginneth January 8th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 6th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 8th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 7th
Þrimilci beginneth May 6th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 5th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 4th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 3rd
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 1st
Winterfylleð beginneth September 30th
Blótmónaþ beginneth October 30th
Ærre Géol beginneth November 28th

Endlefta Géar (2020)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 20th
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth December 28th
Solmónaþ beginneth January 26th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth February 25th
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 26th
Þrimilci beginneth April 25th
Ærre Líða beginneth May 24th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 23rd
Þrilíða beginneth July 22nd
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 21st
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 19th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 18th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 17th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 16th

Twelfta Géar (2021)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 15th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 13th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 15th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 14th
Þrimilci beginneth May 13th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 12th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 12th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 10th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 9th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 8th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 6th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 6th

Þréotéoða Géar (2022)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 4th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 3rd
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 4th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 3rd
Þrimilci beginneth May 2nd
Ærre Líða beginneth June 1st
Æftera Líða beginneth July 1st
Weodmónaþ beginneth July 30th
Háligmónaþ beginneth August 29th
Winterfylleð beginneth September 27th
Blótmónaþ beginneth October 27th
Ærre Géol beginneth November 25th

Féowertéoða Géar (2023)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 22nd

Æftera Géol beginneth December 25th
Solmónaþ beginneth January 23rd
Hréþmónaþ beginneth February 22nd
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 23rd
Þrimilci beginneth April 22nd
Ærre Líða beginneth May 21st
Æftera Líða beginneth June 20th
Þrilíða beginneth July 19th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 18th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 17th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 16th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 15th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 14th

Fíftéoða Géar (2024)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 20th
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 13th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 11th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 12th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 10th
Þrimilci beginneth May 10th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 8th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 7th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 6th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 5th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 4th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 3rd
Ærre Géol beginneth December 3rd

Siextéoða Géar (2025)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth January 1st
Solmónaþ beginneth January 31st
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 2nd
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 31st
Þrimilci beginneth April 29th
Ærre Líða beginneth May 29th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 27th
Weodmónaþ beginneth July 26th
Háligmónaþ beginneth August 25th
Winterfylleð beginneth September 23rd
Blótmónaþ beginneth October 23rd
Ærre Géol beginneth November 22nd

Seofontéoða Géar (2026)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth December 22nd
Solmónaþ beginneth January 20th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth February 19th
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 21st
Þrimilci beginneth April 19th
Ærre Líða beginneth May 18th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 17th
Þrilíða beginneth July 16th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 14th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 13th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 12th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 11th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 11th

Eahtatéoða Géar (2027)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 21st
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 23rd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 22nd

Æftera Géol beginneth January 9th
Solmónaþ beginneth February 8th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth March 10th
Éastermónaþ beginneth April 8th
Þrimilci beginneth May 8th
Ærre Líða beginneth June 6th
Æftera Líða beginneth July 6th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 4th
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 2nd
Winterfylleð beginneth October 2nd
Blótmónaþ beginneth October 31st
Ærre Géol beginneth November 30th

Nigontéoða Géar (2028)
The Spring Equinox falleth upon March 20th
The Summer Solstice falleth upon June 20th
The Autumn Equinox falleth upon September 22nd
The Winter Solstice falleth upon December 21st

Æftera Géol beginneth December 29th
Solmónaþ beginneth January 28th
Hréþmónaþ beginneth February 27th
Éastermónaþ beginneth March 28th
Þrimilci beginneth April 26th
Ærre Líða beginneth May 26th
Æftera Líða beginneth June 24th
Þrilíða beginneth July 24th
Weodmónaþ beginneth August 22nd
Háligmónaþ beginneth September 20th
Winterfylleð beginneth October 20th
Blótmónaþ beginneth November 18th
Ærre Géol beginneth December 18th